Before we can learn about algorithms and data structures we must first learn how to analyze algorithms and data structures so we can apply them to the right needs.
It is highly recommended that you understand the syntax and control structures for Java or C++ before you continue.
Runtime and Memory
Processing time and memory are two primary resources that computer programs use and it is important to analyze the limits we have. Computers are super fast at making calculations compared to humans, but humans have much more "memory" than computers currently do. For example, computers can add two 100-digit numbers together much more quickly than any human possibly can. Standard computers have around 8GB of RAM and some higher end machines may have 16-32GB. Although hard-disks can store terabytes of memory, we use RAM (flash memory) when analyzing computer memory because it is much faster than disk storage. As an analogy, RAM can be thought of as grabbing an object in another room whereas disk memory is driving 20 min away to get that object.